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Roma is a football (soccer) club from Italy.

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About Roma

Associazione Sportiva Roma, (, ) commonly referred to as simply Roma, is a professional Football in Italy based in Rome. Founded by a merger arranged by the Fascist regime in 1927, Roma have participated in the top-tier of Italian football for all of their existence but one season in the early 50s (Serie B 1951-52). For their 60th season in a row (79th overall), Roma are competing in Serie A in the 2011–12 Serie A.

Roma have won Serie A three times, first in Serie A 1941-42 then in Serie A 1982-83 and again in Serie A 2000-01, as well as winning nine Coppa Italia titles and two Supercoppa Italiana titles. On the UEFA Roma won an Inter-Cities Fairs Cup in Inter-Cities Fairs Cup 1960-61, coming close to UEFA Champions League victory in European Cup 1983-84 (lost the 1984 European Cup Final against Liverpool F.C. after a penalty shootout), and finishing as runners-up in the UEFA Europa League for UEFA Cup 1990-91 (1991 UEFA Cup Final against F.C. Internazionale Milano).

Home games are currently played at the Stadio Olimpico, a venue they share with city rivals S.S. Lazio. With a capacity of over 72,000, it is the List of football stadiums in Italy of its kind in Italy, with only San Siro able to seat more. In September 2009 the club unveiled plans to build a Stadio Franco Sensi in the western suburbs of Rome. Its design was modeled after Football in England stadiums with the objective being to give fans a closer view of the pitch. In September 2011, it was announced that the new president, Thomas DiBenedetto, had reached an agreement with the mayor of Rome, Gianni Alemanno, to have the new stadium completed by 2014. Like the previous plan by Sensi, this new stadium is to be modeled after English stadiums.


A.S. Roma was founded in the summer of 1927 when a secretary of the National Fascist Party, Italo Foschi, The only major Roman club to resist the merger was S.S. Lazio because of the intervention of the army General Vaccaro, member of the club and executive of Italian Football Federation.
The club played its earliest seasons at the Motovelodromo Appio stadium, before settling in the working-class streets of Testaccio, where it built an all-wooden ground Campo Testaccio; this was opened in November 1929.

First title victory and decline

After a slump in league form and the departure of high key players, Roma eventually rebuilt their squad adding goalscorers such as the Argentine Enrique Guaita. Under the management of Luigi Barbesino, the Roman club came close to their first title in Serie A 1935-36; finishing just one point behind champions Bologna F.C. 1909.
Roma returned to form after being inconsistent for much of the late 1930s; Roma recorded an unexpected title triumph in the 1941–42 Serie A season by winning their first ever scudetto title. The eighteen goals scored by local player Amedeo Amadei were essential to the Alfréd Schaffer coached Roma side winning the title. At the time Italy was involved in World War II and Roma were playing at the Stadio Nazionale PNF.

In the years just after the war, Roma were unable to recapture their league stature from the early 1940s. Roma finished in the lower half of Serie A for five seasons in a row, before eventually succumbing to their only ever relegation to Serie B at the end of the Serie A 1950-51 season; around a decade after their championship victory. Under future Italy national football team manager Giuseppe Viani, promotion straight back up was achieved. A few years later Roma won their first Coppa Italia trophy in 1963–64, by beating Torino F.C. 1–0.

Their lowest point came during the 1964–65 season when manager Juan Carlos Lorenzo announced that the club could not pay its players and was unlikely to be able to afford to travel to Vicenza to fulfil its next fixture. Supporters kept the club going with a fundraiser at the Sistine Theatre and bankruptcy was avoided with the election of a new club president Franco Evangelisti (politician).

Their second Coppa Italia trophy was won in 1968–69 when it was competed in a small league like system.

Time of mixed fortunes

Roma were able to add another cup to their collection in 1972, with a 3–1 victory over Blackpool F.C. in the Anglo-Italian Cup. During much of the 1970s Roma's appearance in the top half of Serie A was sporadic. The best place the club were able to achieve during the decade was third in Serie A 1974-75. Former A.C. Milan player Nils Liedholm was the manager at the time, with players such as Bruno Conti, Agostino Di Bartolomei, Roberto Pruzzo and Falcão. The Serie A 1983-84 Roma finished as runners-up in Italy Roma's successful run in the 1980s would finish with a runners-up spot in Serie A 1985-86 the same season the club won its Coppa Italia 1990-91 Coppa Italia trophy

The club attempted to defend the title in the Serie A 2001-02 but ended as runners-up to Juventus F.C. by just one point. The club also re-capitalized several time in 2003–04 season. In November 20003 €37.5 million was injected by "Roma 2000" to cover the half year loss and loss carried from previous year. and again on 30 June for €44.57 million. Through stock market, a further €19.850 million of new shares issued, and at the year end, the share capital was €19.878 million, which unchanged as of 2011. The following season also saw the departure of Walter Samuel for €25 million and Emerson Ferreira da Rosa for €28 million, which decreased the strength of the squad, thus Giallorossi finished as the eighth place, one of the worst of recent season.

A 2006 Serie A scandal was revealed during 2006 and Roma were one of the teams not involved; after punishments were handed out, Roma was re-classified as runners-up for Serie A 2005-06; the same season in which they finished second in the Coppa Italia losing to F.C. Internazionale Milano. Meanwhile in the UEFA Champions League during both of these seasons, they reached the quarter-finals before going out to Manchester United F.C.. Despite the sloppy start in UEFA Champions League 2008–09, Roma managed to reach the knockout stage ahead of Chelsea F.C. in their group, thus finishing for the first time in their history as winners of the group stage. However, the Giallorossi would lose to Arsenal F.C. in the knockout stage on penalty kicks, ending their Champions League campaign.

After a disappointing start to the 2009–10 season, Claudio Ranieri replaced Luciano Spalletti as head coach. At the time of the switch, Roma lay bottom of the Serie A table after losses to Juventus and Genoa. Despite this setback, Roma would later embark on an incredible unbeaten streak of 24 matches in the league – with the last of the 24 being a 2–1 win over rivals Lazio, whereby Roma came from 1–0 down at half-time to defeat their city rivals after Ranieri courageously substituted both Totti and De Rossi at the interval. The Giallorossi were on top of the table at one point, before a loss to U.C. Sampdoria later in the season. Roma would finish runners-up to Inter yet again in both Serie A and the Coppa Italia. This rounded out a highly successful decade in Roma's history, following somewhat mediocre results of the 1990s. During the 2000s, Roma had finally recaptured the Scudetto, two Coppa Italia trophies, and their first two Supercoppa Italiana titles. Other notable contributions to the club's history have included a return to the UEFA Champions League Quarter-finals (in the 2006–2007 and 2007–2008 editions) since 1984, six runners up positions in the league, four Coppa Italia finals and three Supercoppa finals – marking Roma's greatest ever decade.

End of the Sensi era

In the summer of 2010, the Sensi family agreed to relinquish their control of AS Roma as part of a debt-settlement agreement. This brought an end to the presidential reign of the Sensi family who had presided over the club since 1993. Until a new owner was appointed, Rosella Sensi would continue her directorial role of the club. The 2010-11 season had once again seen Roma start off with mixed fortunes on both a domestic and European level. These included losses against teams like Cagliari, Brescia and a 2-0 defeat against Bayern Munich in the group stages of the Champions League (a match which saw manager Claudio Ranieri openly criticised by his own players). However, these were accompanied by victories against Inter Milan and a sensational victory against Bayern Munich in the return fixture, which saw Roma fight back from 0-2 down at half-time to emerge as 3-2 winners. Following a series of poor results which saw Roma engage in a winless-streak of five consecutive matches, Claudio Ranieri resigned as head coach in February 2011, and former striker Vincenzo Montella was appointed as caretaker manager until the end of the season. It was also during this season that Roma icon, Francesco Totti, scored his 200th Serie A goal against Fiorentina in March 2011 - becoming only the sixth ever player to achieve such a feat.

On 16 April 2011, the takeover contract was signed. The new holding company, "NEEP Roma Holding S.p.A.", was a joint venture of "DiBenedetto AS Roma LLC" and Unicredit S.p.A., in a 60-40 ratio. NEEP itself had €120,000 share capitals.

NEEP would acquired 67.1% shares (or 88,918,686 shares) of A.S. Roma SpA (the club itself, valued €60.3 million), entire ownership of "ASR Real Estate S.r.l." and "Brand Management S.r.l." from Sensi's "Roma 2000 S.r.l." (a subsidiary of Italpetroli) for a total of €70.3 million.

The takeover was led by Thomas R. DiBenedetto, through "DiBenedetto AS Roma LLC" (along with James Pallotta, Michael Ruane and Richard D'Amore, accounting for 25% capitals each). The transaction date was scheduled on 31 July 2011, but delayed to 18 August.

The new ownership immediately went into effect by making significant changes in the club, hiring Walter Sabatini as director of football and former Spanish international and FC Barcelona B coach Luis Enrique Martínez García as manager; the first high-profile signings from the duo were attacking midfielder Erik Lamela from Club Atlético River Plate, forward Bojan Krkić from FC Barcelona, goalkeeper Maarten Stekelenburg from AFC Ajax and unattached defender Gabriel Heinze. The club also sold and released high earner, namely defender John Arne Riise, keeper Doniéber Alexander Marangon, forward Jérémy Ménez and Mirko Vučinić.

However, Roma was eliminated from 2011–12 UEFA Europa League play-off round. After the formal takeover on 18 August, Roma bought forward Pablo Daniel Osvaldo, midfielder Miralem Pjanić, Fernando Gago and defender Simon Kjær, as well as youngster Fabio Borini, made the club costed more than 40 million if the loan deal were successfully turned to definitive deal.

In ownership, the "NEEP Roma Holding S.p.A." also started a total takeover as required the statutory, which the company would purchase the shares from the minority shareholder and public market (43,604,610 shares or 32.903%), for €0.6781 per shares, same price that NEEP bought the shares from Sensi. NEEP also stated that de-listing the company is not a must as it was activated by the law., the same price as takeover price in April. Eventually NEEP did not acquired enough shares and AS Roma remains a listed company.

Presidential history

Roma have had numerous presidents over the course of their history, some of which have been the owners of the club, others have been honorary presidents. Franco Sensi was the chairman until his death in 2008, with his daughter Rosella Sensi in place as honorary president.


Out on loan

Non-playing staff

Retired numbers

6 – Aldair, Defender (association football) Centre back, 1990–03

Club statistics and records

Francesco Totti holds Roma's official appearance record, having made 610 (as of May 2011) appearances in all competitions, over the course of 19 seasons from 1992 until the present day.

Including all competitions, Francesco Totti is the all-time leading goalscorer for Roma, with 262 goals since joining the club, 207 of which were scored in Serie A (another Roma record). The biggest ever victory recorded by Roma was 9–0 against U.S. Cremonese during the Serie A season of Serie A 1929-30.

Colours, badge and nicknames

Roma's colours of maroon red with a golden yellow trim represents the traditional colours of the Eternal City (Rome), the official seal of the Comune di Roma features the same colours. The gold symbolizes God in Roman Catholicism, while the maroon represents Roman Empire dignity. White shorts and black socks are usually worn with the maroon red shirt, however in particularly high key games the shorts and socks are the same colour as the home shirt.

The kit itself was originally worn by Roman F.C.; one of the three clubs who merged to form the current incarnation in 1927. Because of the colours they wear, Roma are often nicknamed i giallorossi meaning the yellow-reds. Roma's away kit is traditionally white, with a third kit changing colour from time to time.

Maybe because of modern sport marketing, the last few years have seen the golden trim and details substituted by light orange. Modern alternate kits have included all orange and orange-maroon versions.

A popular nickname for the club is i lupi (the wolves), the animal has always featured on the club's badge in different forms throughout their history. Currently the emblem of the team is the one which was used when the club was first founded. It portrays the female wolf with the two infant brothers Romulus and Remus, illustrating the Founding of Rome,

In the myth from which the club take their nickname and logo, the twins (sons of Mars (god) and Rhea Silvia) are thrown into the River Tiber by their uncle Amulius, a she-wolf saved the twins and looked after them.

Shirt sponsors and manufacturers

{, FC Internazionale Milano, AC Milan and S.S.C. Napoli with around 6% of Italian football fans supporting the club (according to the Doxa Institute-L'Espresso’s research of April 2006). Historically the largest section of Roma supporters in the city of Rome have come from the Inner city, especially Testaccio.

The traditional ultras group of the club was Commando Ultrà Curva Sud

The most known club anthem and motto is Roma,Roma,Roma by local singer Antonello Venditti. The title roughly means "Roma is not to be questioned, it is to be loved" and is sung before each match, the song Grazie Roma, by the same singer, is played at the end of victorious home games. Recently, the main riff of The White Stripes song Seven Nation Army has also become widely popular at games.

In Italian football Roma are a club with many rivalries; first and foremost is their rivalry with S.S. Lazio, the club who they share the Stadio Olimpico stadium with. The Local derby between the two is called the Derby della Capitale, it is amongst the most heated and emotional Major football rivalries in the world. The fixture has seen some occasional instances of violence in the past including the death of S.S. Lazio fan, Vincenzo Paparelli in Serie A 1979-80 as a result of an Flare gun fired from the Curva Sud, and the abandonment of a game in march Serie A 2003-04, following unfounded rumours of a fatality which led to violence outside the stadium.

With S.S.C. Napoli, Roma also compete in the Derby del Sole rivalry meaning the "Derby of the Sun". Nowadays fans also consider other Serie A giants like Juventus F.C. (rivalry born especially in the 1980s), A.C. Milan and F.C. Internazionale Milano (increased in recent years) among their rivals as these four compete for the top four spots in the league table to secure a spot in the UEFA Champions League.

Conflict with English fans

There have been a number of instances of conflict in recent years between some Roma supporters and fans of English clubs, pointing to an apparent dislike for English fans in some Giallorossi supporters. One reason forwarded for this is the defeat to Liverpool in the 1984 European Cup Final at the Stadio Olimpico, Since then, there have been further instances of some English supporters being attacked and stabbed in Rome, including incidents in 2001 when Liverpool visited Roma twice and subsequent clashes with Middlesbrough fans in 2006 and Manchester United fans in 2007. In March 2009, a coach carrying Arsenal supporters was attacked by a group of Roma "Ultras" just outside the Stadio Olimpico. The coach's windows were smashed and at least one person entered the vehicle, letting off a flare and stabbed a supporter in the knee. Arsenal had posted advice to their fans on how to avoid routes taken by Roma Ultras.


National titles

Coppa C.O.N.I.
Campionato Italiano di Serie B:

Other unofficial titles

Inter-Cities Fairs Cup
Torneo Anglo-Italiano

Associazione Sportiva Roma as a company

Since 1999, during Franco Sensi's period in charge, Associazione Sportiva Roma has been a joint stock company. From 2004 to 2011, Roma's share (finance)s are distributed between; 67.1% to Compagnia Italpetroli SpA (the Sensi family Holding company), 2.5% to Danilo Coppola and 30.4% to other shareholders.

In April 2008, after months of speculation, George Soros was confirmed by Rosella Sensi, CEO of Italy Serie A association football club A.S. Roma, to be bidding for a takeover. The takeover bid was successively rejected by the Sensi family, who instead preferred to maintain the club's ownership. On August 17, 2008 club chairman and owner Franco Sensi died after a long illness; his place at the chairmanship of the club was successively taken by his daughter Rosella.

Since the takeover in 2011, NEEP Roma Holding S.p.A. owned all shares Sensi previously hold. NEEP, itself a joint venture, is held by DiBenedetto AS Roma LLC (later renamed to AS Roma SPV, LLC) and Unicredit in 60-40 ratio, which the former had 4 real person shareholders in equal ratio, led by Roma current president Thomas R. DiBenedetto. After the mandatory bid, bought additional shares from the public sector, made the NEEP held 78.038%. (increased from 67.1%)

Along with S.S. Lazio and Juventus F.C., i Lupi is one of only three Italian clubs quotated in Borsa Italiana (Italian stock exchange). According to Deloitte Football Money League published by consultants Deloitte, in the season 2010–11, Roma was the 15th highest earning football club in the world with an Deloitte Football Money League Full listing of €143.5 million.

Since re-capitalization in 2003–04 season, Roma had a short-lived financial self-sustainability. The club had set-up a special amortization fund using art. 18-bis Legge 91/1981 mainly for the abnormal signing in 2002–03 season, (such as Davide Bombardini for €11 million account value, which the flopped player exchange boosted 2002–03 season result) and the tax payment of 2002–03 season was rescheduled. In 2004–05 season Roma made a net income of €10,091,689 and followed by €804,285 in 2005–06 season. In 2006–07 season the accounting method changed to IFRS, which 2005–06 result was reclassified as net loss of €4,051,905 and 2006–07 season was net income of €10,135,539 (€14.011 million as a group). Moreover, the special fund (€80,189,123) was removed from the asset and co-currently for the equity as scheduled, made Roma group had a negative equity of €8.795 million on 30 June 2007. In 2007–08 season Roma made a net income of €18,699,219. (€19 million as a group) However, in 2008–09 season saw the decrease of gate and TV income, co-currently with finished 6th in Serie A, which saw Roma made a net loss of €1,894,330. (€1.56 million as a Consolidated financial statement) The gate and TV income further slipped in 2009–10 season, made a net loss of €21,917,292 (already boosted by the sale of Alberto Aquilani; €22 million as a group) despite sporting success (the second in 2009–10 Serie A). Moreover, despite a positive equity as a separate company (€105,142,589), the AS Roma Group had a negative equity on Consolidated financial statement, fell from +€8.8million to negative €13.2 million. In 2010–11 season Roma was administrated by UniCredit as Sensi family failed to repay the bank and the club was put into the market, which also saw Roma did not had major signing in 2010–11 season. Co-currently with no selling profit on the player, Roma net loss was enlarged to €30,589,137 (€30.778 million as a group) and the new owner already planned a re-capitalization after the mandatory bid on the shares. On the good side, the TV income was increased from €75,150,744 to €78,041,642 as well as gate income increased, from €23,821,218 to €31,017,179. It is because Roma entered 2010–11 UEFA Champions League which counter-weight the effect of the new collective agreement of Serie A.

One of the subsidiary of Roma (joint venture with SS Lazio, 37.5% x2 and Parma, 25%), Società Diritti Sportivi S.r.l. was in the process of liquidation since 2005. The company was a joint-venture of 4 football clubs including Fiorentina. However after the bankruptcy of old Viola, both Roma and Lazio had increased it shares ratio from 25% to 37.5%.

Superleague Formula

A.S. Roma has a team in the new Superleague Formula race car series where teams are sponsored by football clubs. A.S. Roma's current driver is ex IndyCar Series driver Franck Perera. The team has posted 3 podiums and is currently operated by Alan Docking Racing

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